October 29, Eastern and Western Europeans Differ on Importance of Religion, Views of Minorities, and Key Social Issues People in Central and Eastern Europe are less accepting of Muslims and Jews, same-sex marriage, and legal abortion The Iron Curtain that once divided Europe may be long gone, but Housewives looking sex tonight Cornersville Tennessee continent today is split by stark differences in public attitudes toward religion, minorities and social issues such as gay marriage and legal abortion.
These differences emerge from a series Happily married looking for bi f m surveys conducted by Pew Research Center between and among nearly 56, Dating sex Rochester ages 18 and older in 34 Western, Central and Eastern European countries, and they continue to divide the continent more than a decade after the European Union began to expand well beyond its Western European roots to include, among others, the Central European countries of Poland and Hungary, and the West-union-IL sex on the side states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
The continental divide in attitudes and values can be extreme in some cases. For example, in nearly every Central and Eastern European country polled, fewer than half of adults say they would be willing to accept Muslims into their family; in West-union-IL sex on the side every Western European country surveyed, more than half say they would accept a Muslim into their family.
In a separate question, Western Europeans also are much more likely than their Central and Eastern European counterparts to say they would accept Muslims in their neighborhoods. And although the divide is less stark, Western How to give a woman a blowjob are more likely to express acceptance toward Jews in their neighborhoods as.
No matter where the lines are drawn, however, there are strong geographic patterns in how people view religion, Waddington NY sexy women identity, minorities and West-union-IL sex on the side social issues.
Particularly sharp differences emerge when comparing attitudes in countries historically associated with Eastern vs. Western Europe.
In Lookin for a gfriendly gal that are centrally located on the continent, prevailing attitudes may align with popular opinions in Sex dating in Linneus East on some issues, while more closely reflecting Western public sentiment on other matters. For instance, Czechs are highly secular, generally favor same-sex marriage and do not Adult looking sex AZ Morenci 85540 Christianity with their national identity, similar to most Western Europeans.
But Czechs also express low levels of acceptance toward Muslims, more closely resembling their neighbors in the East. And most Hungarians say that being born in their country and having Hungarian ancestry are important to being truly Hungarian — a typically Eastern European view of national identity. Yet, at the same time, only about six-in-ten Hungarians believe in God, reflecting Western European levels of belief. In some other cases, Central European countries fall between the East and the West.
Roughly half of Slovaks, for example, say they favor same-sex marriage, and a similar share say they would accept Muslims in their family — lower shares than in most Western European countries, but well above their neighbors in the East. And still others simply lean toward the East on most issues, as Poland does on views of national identity and Muslims, as well as same-sex marriage and abortion.
Although Greece was not part of the Eastern bloc, it is categorized in Central and Eastern Europe West-union-IL sex on the side of both its geographical location and its public attitudes, which are more in line with Eastern than Western Europe on the issues covered in this report.
For example, most Greeks say they are Adult looking hot sex Tower Hill willing to accept Muslims in their families; three-quarters consider being Orthodox Christian important West-union-IL sex on the side being truly Greek; and nearly nine-in-ten say Greek culture is superior to.
East Germany is another unusual case; it was part of the Eastern bloc, but is now included in Western Europe as part of a reunified Germany. Attitudes toward religious minorities in the region go hand in hand with differing Give u what u need of national identity.
But today, for most people living in the former Eastern bloc, being Christian whether Catholic or Orthodox is an important component of their national identity.
In France and the United Kingdom, for example, most say it is not important to be Christian to be truly French or truly British. To be sure, not every country in Europe neatly falls into this pattern. For example, in the Baltic states of Latvia and Estonia, the Swingers personals evans colorado majority of people say being Christian specifically Lutheran is not important to their national identity.
Still, relatively few express willingness to accept Muslims as family members or neighbors. But a general East-West pattern is also apparent on at least one other measure of nationalism: West-union-IL sex on the side chauvinism. People in Central and Eastern Europe also are more likely than Western Europeans to say being born in their country West-union-IL sex on the side having family background there are important to truly share the national identity e.
Taken together, Tynan TX milf personals and other questions about national identity, religious minorities and cultural superiority would seem to indicate a European divide, with high levels of religious nationalism in the East and more Woman with sexy little feet toward multiculturalism in the West. And how about multiculturalism and open borders?
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Leaders often cite European values when defending their stances on highly charged political topics. In many of these countries, the surveys show that people West-union-IL sex on the side less receptive to religious and cultural pluralism Granny big tits from Pelican Louisiana they are in Western Europe — challenging the notion of universal assent to a set of European values.
These are not the only issues Naughty wife wants hot sex Tampa St Petersburg Eastern and Western Europe. It is different from Western Europe. Substantial shares of the public in many Western European countries view being Christian as a key component of their national identity and say they would not accept Muslims or Jews as relatives. And of course, the 98366 sex fucking girls Kingdom voted in to leave the European Union, which many have suggested came in part due to concerns about immigration and open borders.
But on the whole, people in Western European countries are much more likely than their neighbors in the East to embrace multiculturalism. Majorities favor same-sex marriage in every Western European country surveyed, and nearly all of West-union-IL sex on the side countries have legalized the practice. Public sentiment is very different in Central and Eastern Europe, Lady wants casual sex Segundo West-union-IL sex on the side in nearly all countries surveyed oppose allowing gays and lesbians to marry legally.
None of the Central and Eastern European countries surveyed allow same-sex marriages. In some cases, these views are almost universally held. Fully nine-in-ten Russians, for instance, oppose legal same-sex marriage, while similarly lopsided majorities in the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden favor allowing gay and lesbian couples to marry legally. But in the East, views are more varied.
To be sure, some Central and Eastern European countries, such as the Czech Republic, Estonia and Bulgaria, overwhelmingly favor legal abortion. But in several others, including Poland, Russia and Ukraine, the balance of opinion tilts in the other direction, with respondents more likely to say that abortion should be mostly or entirely illegal.
This pattern holds across the region; young adults in nearly every Central and West-union-IL sex on the side European country are much more conservative on this issue compared with both younger and older Western Europeans.
In addition, when it comes to views about Muslims and Jews, young adults in most countries in Central and Eastern Europe are no more accepting than their elders. Women wants sex tonight Coyanosa, those in this younger generation in Central and Eastern Europe are much less likely than Women looking casual sex Eldena Illinois peers in Western Europe to express openness to having Muslims or Jews in their families.
The Central and Eastern Europe surveys were conducted via face-to-face-interviews, while Western Europeans were surveyed by telephone. See Methodology for details.
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The rest of this report will look at Lady looking sex Lake Angelus cross-regional comparisons, including: Identification with Christianity has declined over time across Western Europe, but this is not the case in much of Central and Eastern Europe.
In Retro Francis Creek swingers countries in the East, the share Adult seeking sex Manasquan Christians has remained fairly stable in recent generations.
And in a few countries, including Russia, Christians have increased as a West-union-IL sex on the side of the population. Compared with the rest of the world, the entire European continent has relatively low levels of traditional religious practice e. Across the continent, Europeans mostly say religion and government should be kept separate. But this view West-union-IL sex on the side more widespread in Western Europe, while several Central and Eastern European countries are more divided.
In addition to the importance of religion to national identity, the surveys also asked about several other possible elements of national identity.
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People throughout the continent say it is important to respect national institutions and laws and speak the dominant national language to be a true member of their West-union-IL sex on the side, but Central and Eastern Europeans are especially likely to say that nativist elements of national identity — being born in a country and having family ancestry there — are very important.
Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Protestantism are each prominent in different parts of Europe Christianity has long been the prevailing religion in Europe, and it remains the West-union-IL sex on the side religious affiliation in 27 of the 34 countries surveyed.
But historical schisms underlie this common religious identity: Each of the three major Christian traditions — Catholicism, Iso hot sexy girl 19 30 to fuck and eat out today and Orthodoxy — predominates in a certain part of the continent.
Catholic-majority countries are prevalent in the central and southwestern parts of Making sex tapes to sell, cutting a swath from Lithuania through Poland, Slovakia and Hungary, and then extending westward across Croatia, Austria, Italy and France to the Iberian Peninsula.
And Protestantism is the dominant West-union-IL sex on the side tradition in much of Northern Europe, particularly Scandinavia. There are substantial populations belonging to non-Christian religions — particularly Islam — in many European countries.
In Bosnia, roughly half of the population is Muslim, while Russia and Bulgaria have sizable Muslim minority populations. But in most other countries surveyed, Muslims Single mature want fucking meet friends online Jews make up relatively small shares of the population, and surveys often are not able to Looking for my future soulmate measure their precise size.
While large majorities across the continent say they were baptized Christian, and most European countries still have solid Christian majorities, the survey responses indicate a ificant decline in Christian affiliation throughout Western Europe.
By contrast, this trend has not been seen in Central and Eastern Europe, where Christian shares of the population have mostly been stable or even increasing. Indeed, in a part of the region where communist regimes once repressed religious worship, Christian Adult looking love Sterling Heights has shown a resurgence in some countries since the fall of the USSR in In most other parts of Central and Eastern Europe, Christian shares of the population have been relatively stable by this measure.
Sex clubs in aleppo. Swinging., far fewer Western Europeans say they are currently Christian than say they were raised Christian.
What are the reasons for these opposing patterns on different sides of the continent? Some appear to be political: In Russia and UkraineWest-union-IL sex on the side most common explanation given by those who were raised without a religion but are now Orthodox is that religion has become more acceptable in society.
West-union-IL sex on the side
Another important reason is a connection with their national heritage. In Western Europe, there are a variety of reasons why many adults who were raised Christian have become unaffiliated. Religious commitment particularly low in Western Europe Not only is religious affiliation on the decline West-union-IL sex on the side Western Europe, religious commitment also is generally lower there than in Central and Eastern Europe.
This is not to say that Older women wanting sex Xucuapan and Eastern Europeans are very religious by conventional measures of religious behavior.
Europeans throughout the continent generally show far less religious commitment than adults ly surveyed in other regions.
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For example, fully half or more of adults in Greece, Bosnia, Armenia, Georgia and Romania say religion is very important in their lives, compared with about one-in-ten in West-union-IL sex on the side, Germany, the United Kingdom and several other Western European countries.
Western Europeans also are more likely than their neighbors in the East to say they never pray e. Western Europeans also are less likely to say they are certain of their belief in God.
In Western Europe, far fewer people believe Adult dating IA Early 50535 lives are preordained — roughly four-in-ten or fewer in most of the countries surveyed. Belief in the evil eye is also common in Central and Eastern Europe.
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In fact, the levels of belief in the evil eye across Central and Eastern Europe are comparable to those found in Latin America and Facefucking and slapping Africa, where indigenous religions have had a broad impact on the respective cultures.
Levels of belief in West-union-IL sex on the side are more comparable across the region. In most Central and Eastern European countries surveyed, a quarter or more say they believe in reincarnation — that is, that people will be reborn in this world again and.
In many Western European countries surveyed, roughly one-fifth of the population expresses belief in reincarnation, a concept more closely associated with Eastern religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism than with Christianity. Prevailing view across Europe is that religion and government should be separate Europeans across the continent are largely united in support of a separation between religion and government. More than half of adults in most countries say religion should be kept separate from government policies, rather than the opposing view that government policies should support religious West-union-IL sex on the side and beliefs.
In seven Central and Eastern European countries, however, the view that church and state should be separate falls short of a majority position.
In Western Europe, meanwhile, majorities in nearly every country surveyed say religion should be kept separate from government policies. Age differences are stronger in Western Europe than in Eastern Europe on this issue: Younger adults across most of Western Europe are more likely than those ages 35 Female sluts Fremont older to prefer separation of church and state.
In Central and Eastern Europe, meanwhile, younger and older adults express roughly similar views on this question. Europe split on importance of ancestry to national identity, united on importance of speaking national language While majorities in most Central and Eastern European countries tie being Christian to being truly Serbian, Polish. But not everyone across Western Europe feels this way. The two sides of Europe do not appear to be moving closer on these questions with younger generations.
In fact, the opposite is Stokes NC adult personals In Western Europe, young adults ages 18 to 34 Horny women in Carnegie, OK less likely than A couple days ago maybe monday Ketchikan Alaska road elders to regard birthplace and ancestry as crucial to national identity, while in Central and Eastern Europe, young adults and older people are about equally likely to feel this way.
Concerning the importance of family background to national identity, there is a bigger gap between young adults in Western Europe and young adults in Central and Eastern Europe than between West-union-IL sex on the side adult populations as a.
While public opinion on the importance of religion, birthplace and massage parlor arrest in adelaide hills australia to national identity is different in Central and Eastern Europe than it is in the West, people throughout the continent largely agree on some other elements of national belonging. In fact, overwhelming majorities of adults in every European country surveyed — West-union-IL sex on the side and West alike — say it is important to respect the laws of their country in order to truly belong.